For a quantitative comparison of different energy resources use the concept of conventional fuel, heating value 1b which is taken equal to 7000 kcal / kg, and as a major unit of energy - the value of Q:
Energy largely determines the level of economic development in general. Virtually all aspects of any modern industrial society is mediated by production of energy in its various forms. Throughout history power has grown faster than the population itself. Thus, if the annual growth rate of energy consumption during the 1960-1975 years. reached 4.3% , the average annual growth rate over the same period was 2.1 "of 1111. As human exploration of new primary energy sources (solar heat, wood, coal, hydro, oil, gas) changed the fuel and energy balance. Currently there is another restructuring Energy balance of the world is associated with the rapid development of nuclear power.
1Q = 2,52 • 10 "calories - 1,05 • 1021 J == 2,93 • 10" kW (th)-h - 3,35 • 107 MW (th) • year.
Note that 1 Q energy produced by burning 36 billion m \ like fuel (tce. Tons). Today, global energy consumption 0,25 Q i leave in a year.
In industrialized countries, the utilization of energy to be about 40%.
The balance of energy resources will harmonize energy production, processing and consumption of them for their intended purpose: 1lya electricity, heat to high | industrial ovens) and low temperature (heating of buildings) processes, fuel na transport needs. According to a rough under-> Cheatham in the world 25% of primary energy is used to produce electricity, 25% - for heating homes and other buildings, 25% - pa industrial purposes, and 25% - for transport.
Finally, we need to dwell on two key indicators used in the preparation of the fuel and energy balance - energy consumption and energy demand. The term refers to energy consumption of primary energy over time, and the term energy needs - Planned primary energy demand in a given period. Quantify energy consumption and energy demand, as well as energy resources, most often be expressed in terms of Q. However, in some cases, when the energy in 1 Q is too high (for example, a quantitative estimate of the energy requirements and energy consumption in per capita terms), instead of unity Q kilowatt unit will be used (th) • year, with the designation of "warm. "indicates that this is a primary (heat) energy that is spent on the production of electricity and heat.
The role of energy in the development of civilization